Although ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor to ipsilateral invasive breast cancer (iIBC), most DCIS lesions remain indolent. Hence, overdiagnosis and overtreatment of DCIS is a major concern. There is an urgent need for prognostic markers that can distinguish harmless from potentially hazardous DCIS. We hypothesised that features of the breast adipose tissue may be associated with risk of subsequent iIBC. We performed a case–control study nested in a population-based DCIS cohort, consisting of 2658 women diagnosed with primary DCIS between 1989 and 2005, uniformly treated with breast conserving surgery (BCS) alone. We assessed breast adipose features with digital pathology (HALO®, Indica Labs) and related these to iIBC risk in 108 women that developed subsequent iIBC (cases) and 168 women who did not (controls) by conditional logistic regression, accounting for clinicopathological and immunohistochemistry variables. Large breast adipocyte size was significantly associated with iIBC risk (odds ratio (OR) 2.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.25–6.05). High cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression in the DCIS cells was also associated with subsequent iIBC (OR 3.70 (95% CI = 1.59–8.64). DCIS with both high COX-2 expression and large breast adipocytes was associated with a 12-fold higher risk (OR 12.0, 95% CI = 3.10–46.3, P < 0.001) for subsequent iIBC compared with women with smaller adipocyte size and low COX-2 expression. Large breast adipocytes combined with high COX-2 expression in DCIS is associated with a high risk of subsequent iIBC. Besides COX-2, adipocyte size has the potential to improve clinical management in patients diagnosed with primary DCIS.
Mutational activation of KRAS promotes the initiation and progression of cancers, especially in the colorectum, pancreas, lung, and blood plasma, with varying prevalence of specific activating missense mutations. Although epidemiological studies connect specific alleles to clinical outcomes, the mechanisms underlying the distinct clinical characteristics of mutant KRAS alleles are unclear. Here, we analyze 13,492 samples from these four tumor types to examine allele- and tissue-specific genetic properties associated with oncogenic KRAS mutations. The prevalence of known mutagenic mechanisms partially explains the observed spectrum of KRAS activating mutations. However, there are substantial differences between the observed and predicted frequencies for many alleles, suggesting that biological selection underlies the tissue-specific frequencies of mutant alleles. Consistent with experimental studies that have identified distinct signaling properties associated with each mutant form of KRAS, our genetic analysis reveals that each KRAS allele is associated with a distinct tissue-specific comutation network. Moreover, we identify tissue-specific genetic dependencies associated with specific mutant KRAS alleles. Overall, this analysis demonstrates that the genetic interactions of oncogenic KRAS mutations are allele- and tissue-specific, underscoring the complexity that drives their clinical consequences.
Purpose: There is potential for fecal microbiome profiling to improve colorectal cancer screening. This has been demonstrated by research studies, but it has not been quantified at scale using samples collected and processed routinely by a national screening program.
Experimental Design: Between 2016 and 2019, the largest of the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme hubs prospectively collected processed guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) samples with subsequent colonoscopy outcomes: blood-negative [n = 491 (22%)]; colorectal cancer [n = 430 (19%)]; adenoma [n = 665 (30%)]; colonoscopy-normal [n = 300 (13%)]; nonneoplastic [n = 366 (16%)]. Samples were transported and stored at room temperature. DNA underwent 16S rRNA gene V4 amplicon sequencing. Taxonomic profiling was performed to provide features for classification via random forests (RF).
Results: Samples provided 16S amplicon-based microbial profiles, which confirmed previously described colorectal cancer–microbiome associations. Microbiome-based RF models showed potential as a first-tier screen, distinguishing colorectal cancer or neoplasm (colorectal cancer or adenoma) from blood-negative with AUC 0.86 (0.82–0.89) and AUC 0.78 (0.74–0.82), respectively. Microbiome-based models also showed potential as a second-tier screen, distinguishing from among gFOBT blood-positive samples, colorectal cancer or neoplasm from colonoscopy-normal with AUC 0.79 (0.74–0.83) and AUC 0.73 (0.68–0.77), respectively. Models remained robust when restricted to 15 taxa, and performed similarly during external validation with metagenomic datasets.
Conclusions: Microbiome features can be assessed using gFOBT samples collected and processed routinely by a national colorectal cancer screening program to improve accuracy as a first- or second-tier screen. The models required as few as 15 taxa, raising the potential of an inexpensive qPCR test. This could reduce the number of colonoscopies in countries that use fecal occult blood test screening.
The prognostic value of cytonuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is debated, partly due to high interobserver variability and the use of multiple guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate interobserver agreement in grading DCIS between Dutch, British, and American pathologists. Haematoxylin and eosin‐stained slides of 425 women with primary DCIS were independently reviewed by nine breast pathologists based in the Netherlands, the UK, and the USA. Chance‐corrected kappa (κma) for association between pathologists was calculated based on a generalised linear mixed model using the ordinal package in R. Overall κma for grade of DCIS (low, intermediate, or high) was estimated to be 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44–0.56), indicating a moderate association between pathologists. When the model was adjusted for national guidelines, the association for grade did not change (κma = 0.53; 95% CI 0.48–0.57); subgroup analysis for pathologists using the UK pathology guidelines only had significantly higher association (κma = 0.58; 95% CI 0.56–0.61). To assess if concordance of grading relates to the expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) and HER2, archived immunohistochemistry was analysed on a subgroup (n = 106). This showed that non‐high grade according to the majority opinion was associated with ER positivity and HER2 negativity (100 and 89% of non‐high grade cases, respectively). In conclusion, DCIS grade showed only moderate association using whole slide images scored by nine breast pathologists. As therapeutic decisions and inclusion in ongoing clinical trials are guided by DCIS grade, there is a pressing need to reduce interobserver variability in grading. ER and HER2 might be supportive to prevent the accidental and unwanted inclusion of high‐grade DCIS in such trials.
Background: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in developing countries, yet limited research on the CRC- associated microbiota has been conducted in these areas, in part due to scarce resources, facilities, and the difficulty of fresh or frozen stool storage/transport. Here, we aimed (1) to establish a broad representation of diverse developing countries (Argentina, Chile, India, and Vietnam); (2) to validate a ‘resource-light’ sample-collection protocol translatable in these settings using guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) cards stored and, importantly, shipped internationally at room temperature; (3) to perform initial profiling of the collective CRC-associated microbiome of these developing countries; and (4) to compare this quantitatively with established CRC biomarkers from developed countries.
Methods: We assessed the effect of international storage and transport at room temperature by replicating gFOBT from five UK volunteers, storing two in the UK, and sending replicates to institutes in the four countries. Next, to determine the effect of prolonged UK storage, DNA extraction replicates for a subset of samples were performed up to 252 days apart. To profile the CRC-associated microbiome of developing countries, gFOBT were collected from 41 treatment-naïve CRC patients and 40 non-CRC controls from across the four institutes, and V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed. Finally, we constructed a random forest (RF) model that was trained and tested against existing datasets from developed countries.
Results: The microbiome was stably assayed when samples were stored/transported at room temperature and after prolonged UK storage. Large-scale microbiome structure was separated by country and continent, with a smaller effect from CRC. Importantly, the RF model performed similarly to models trained using external datasets and identified similar taxa of importance (Parvimonas, Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, Alistipes, and Escherichia).
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that gFOBT, stored and transported at room temperature, represents a suitable method of faecal sample collection for amplicon-based microbiome biomarkers in developing countries and suggests a CRC-faecal microbiome association that is consistent between developed and developing countries.