Glucose dependency of cancer cells can be targeted with a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD). However, in IL-6-producing cancers, suppression of the hepatic ketogenic potential hinders the utilization of KD as energy for the organism. In IL-6-associated murine models of cancer cachexia, we describe delayed tumor growth but accelerated cachexia onset and shortened survival in mice fed KD. Mechanistically, this uncoupling is a consequence of the biochemical interaction of two NADPH-dependent pathways. Within the tumor, increased lipid peroxidation and, consequently, saturation of the glutathione (GSH) system lead to the ferroptotic death of cancer cells. Systemically, redox imbalance and NADPH depletion impair corticosterone biosynthesis. Administration of dexamethasone, a potent glucocorticoid, increases food intake, normalizes glucose levels and utilization of nutritional substrates, delays cachexia onset, and extends the survival of tumor-bearing mice fed KD while preserving reduced tumor growth. Our study emphasizes the need to investigate the effects of systemic interventions on both the tumor and the host to accurately assess therapeutic potential. These findings may be relevant to clinical research efforts that investigate nutritional interventions such as KD in patients with cancer.
Routine tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging of colorectal cancer is imperfect in predicting survival due to tumor pathobiological heterogeneity and imprecise assessment of tumor spread. We leveraged Bayesian additive regression trees (BART), a statistical learning technique, to comprehensively analyze patient-specific tumor characteristics for the improvement of prognostic prediction. Of 75 clinicopathologic, immune, microbial, and genomic variables in 815 stage II–III patients within two U.S.-wide prospective cohort studies, the BART risk model identified seven stable survival predictors. Risk stratifications (low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk) based on model-predicted survival were statistically significant (hazard ratios 0.19–0.45, vs. higher risk; P < 0.0001) and could be externally validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data (P = 0.0004). BART demonstrated model flexibility, interpretability, and comparable or superior performance to other machine-learning models. Integrated bioinformatic analyses using BART with tumor-specific factors can robustly stratify colorectal cancer patients into prognostic groups and be readily applied to clinical oncology practice.
Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) accounts for 20–25% of all new breast cancer diagnoses. DCIS has an uncertain risk of progression to invasive breast cancer and a lack of predictive biomarkers may result in relatively high levels (~ 75%) of overtreatment. To identify unique prognostic biomarkers of invasive progression, crystallographic and chemical features of DCIS microcalcifications have been explored. Samples from patients with at least 5-years of follow up and no known recurrence (174 calcifications in 67 patients) or ipsilateral invasive breast cancer recurrence (179 microcalcifications in 57 patients) were studied. Significant differences were noted between the two groups including whitlockite relative mass, hydroxyapatite and whitlockite crystal maturity and, elementally, sodium to calcium ion ratio. A preliminary predictive model for DCIS to invasive cancer progression was developed from these parameters with an AUC of 0.797. These results provide insights into the differing DCIS tissue microenvironments, and how these impact microcalcification formation.
Focal copy-number amplification is an oncogenic event. Although recent studies have revealed the complex structure1,2,3 and the evolutionary trajectories4 of oncogene amplicons, their origin remains poorly understood. Here we show that focal amplifications in breast cancer frequently derive from a mechanism—which we term translocation–bridge amplification—involving inter-chromosomal translocations that lead to dicentric chromosome bridge formation and breakage. In 780 breast cancer genomes, we observe that focal amplifications are frequently connected to each other by inter-chromosomal translocations at their boundaries. Subsequent analysis indicates the following model: the oncogene neighbourhood is translocated in G1 creating a dicentric chromosome, the dicentric chromosome is replicated, and as dicentric sister chromosomes segregate during mitosis, a chromosome bridge is formed and then broken, with fragments often being circularized in extrachromosomal DNAs. This model explains the amplifications of key oncogenes, including ERBB2 and CCND1. Recurrent amplification boundaries and rearrangement hotspots correlate with oestrogen receptor binding in breast cancer cells. Experimentally, oestrogen treatment induces DNA double-strand breaks in the oestrogen receptor target regions that are repaired by translocations, suggesting a role of oestrogen in generating the initial translocations. A pan-cancer analysis reveals tissue-specific biases in mechanisms initiating focal amplifications, with the breakage–fusion–bridge cycle prevalent in some and the translocation–bridge amplification in others, probably owing to the different timing of DNA break repair. Our results identify a common mode of oncogene amplification and propose oestrogen as its mechanistic origin in breast cancer.
Background & Aims:
Elements of field cancerization including atrophic gastritis, metaplasia and dysplasia promote gastric cancer development in association with chronic inflammation. However, it remains unclear how stroma changes during carcinogenesis and how the stroma contributes to progression of gastric preneoplasia. Here we investigated heterogeneity of fibroblasts, one of the most important elements in the stroma, and their roles in neoplastic transformation of metaplasia.
We utilized single cell transcriptomics to evaluate the cellular heterogeneity of mucosal cells from human gastric cancer patients. Tissue sections from the same cohort and tissue microarrays were used to identify the geographical distribution of distinct fibroblast subsets. We further evaluated the role of fibroblasts from pathologic mucosa in dysplastic progression of metaplastic cells using patient-derived metaplastic gastroids and fibroblasts.
We identified four subsets of fibroblasts within stromal cells defined by the differential expression of PDGFRA, FBLN2, ACTA2 or PDGFRB. Each subset was distributed distinctively throughout stomach tissues with different proportions at each pathologic stage. The PDGFRα+ subset expanded in metaplasia and cancer compared with normal, maintaining a close proximity with the epithelial compartment. Co-culture of metaplasia- or cancer-derived fibroblasts with gastroids showing the characteristics of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) induced disordered growth, loss of metaplastic markers and increases in markers of dysplasia. Culture of metaplastic gastroids with conditioned media from metaplasia- or cancer-derived fibroblasts also promoted dysplastic transition.
These findings indicate that fibroblast associations with metaplastic epithelial cells can facilitate direct transition of metaplastic SPEM cell lineages into dysplastic lineages.