Fusobacterium nucleatum has been detected in 8%-13% of human colorectal cancer, and shown to inhibit immune responses against primary colorectal tumors in animal models. Thus, we hypothesized that the presence of F. nucleatum might be associated with reduced T cell density in colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). We quantified F. nucleatum DNA in 181 CRLM specimens using quantitative PCR assay. The densities of CD8+ T cells, CD33+ cells (marker for myeloid-derived suppressor cells [MDSCs]), and CD163+ cells (marker for tumor-associated macrophages [TAMs]) in CRLM tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Fusobacterium nucleatum was detected in eight (4.4%) of 181 CRLM specimens. Compared with F. nucleatum-negative CRLM, F. nucleatum-positive CRLM showed significantly lower density of CD8+ T cells (P = .033) and higher density of MDSCs (P = .001). The association of F. nucleatum with the density of TAMs was not statistically significant (P = .70). The presence of F. nucleatum is associated with a lower density of CD8+ T cells and a higher density of MDSCs in CRLM tissue. Upon validation, our findings could provide insights to develop strategies that involve targeting microbiota and immune cells for the prevention and treatment of CRLM.
Background & aims: Metaplasia in the stomach is highly associated with development of intestinal-type gastric cancer. Two types of metaplasias, spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM), are considered precancerous lesions. However, it remains unclear how SPEM and IM are related. Here we investigated a new lineage-specific marker for SPEM cells, aquaporin 5 (AQP5), to assist in the identification of these 2 metaplasias.
Methods: Drug- or Helicobacter felis (H felis) infection-induced mouse models were used to identify the expression pattern of AQP5 in acute or chronic SPEM. Gene-manipulated mice treated with or without drug were used to investigate how AQP5 expression is regulated in metaplastic lesions. Metaplastic samples from transgenic mice and human gastric cancer patients were evaluated for AQP5 expression. Immunostaining with lineage-specific markers was used to differentiate metaplastic gland characteristics.
Results: Our results revealed that AQP5 is a novel lineage-specific marker for SPEM cells that are localized at the base of metaplastic glands initially and expand to dominate glands after chronic H felis infection. In addition, AQP5 expression was up-regulated early in chief cell reprogramming and was promoted by interleukin 13. In humans, metaplastic corpus showed highly branched structures with AQP5-positive SPEM. Human SPEM cells strongly expressing AQP5 were present at the bases of incomplete IM glands marked by TROP2 but were absent from complete IM glands.
Conclusions: AQP5-expressing SPEM cells are present in pyloric metaplasia and TROP2-positive incomplete IM and may be an important component of metaplasia that can predict a higher risk for gastric cancer development.
Background: Radiotherapy (RT) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) reduces ipsilateral breast event rates in clinical trials. This study assessed the impact of DCIS treatment on a 20-year risk of ipsilateral DCIS (iDCIS) and ipsilateral invasive breast cancer (iIBC) in a population-based cohort.
Methods: The cohort comprised all women diagnosed with DCIS in the Netherlands during 1989–2004 with follow-up until 2017. Cumulative incidence of iDCIS and iIBC following BCS and BCS + RT were assessed. Associations of DCIS treatment with iDCIS and iIBC risk were estimated in multivariable Cox models.
Results: The 20-year cumulative incidence of any ipsilateral breast event was 30.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 28.9–32.6) after BCS compared to 18.2% (95% CI 16.3–20.3) following BCS + RT. Women treated with BCS compared to BCS + RT had higher risk of developing iDCIS and iIBC within 5 years after DCIS diagnosis (for iDCIS: hazard ratio (HR)age < 50 3.2 (95% CI 1.6–6.6); HRage ≥ 50 3.6 (95% CI 2.6–4.8) and for iIBC: HRage<50 2.1 (95% CI 1.4–3.2); HRage ≥ 50 4.3 (95% CI 3.0–6.0)). After 10 years, the risk of iDCIS and iIBC no longer differed for BCS versus BCS + RT (for iDCIS: HRage < 50 0.7 (95% CI 0.3–1.5); HRage ≥ 50 0.7 (95% CI 0.4–1.3) and for iIBC: HRage < 50 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9); HRage ≥ 50 1.2 (95% CI 0.9–1.6)).
Conclusions: RT is associated with lower iDCIS and iIBC risk up to 10 years after BCS, but this effect wanes thereafter.
Multiplexed imaging is a recently developed and powerful single-cell biology research tool. However, it presents new sources of technical noise that are distinct from other types of single-cell data, necessitating new practices for single-cell multiplexed imaging processing and analysis, particularly regarding cell-type identification. Here we created single-cell multiplexed imaging datasets by performing CODEX on four sections of the human colon (ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid) using a panel of 47 oligonucleotide-barcoded antibodies. After cell segmentation, we implemented five different normalization techniques crossed with four unsupervised clustering algorithms, resulting in 20 unique cell-type annotations for the same dataset. We generated two standard annotations: hand-gated cell types and cell types produced by over-clustering with spatial verification. We then compared these annotations at four levels of cell-type granularity. First, increasing cell-type granularity led to decreased labeling accuracy; therefore, subtle phenotype annotations should be avoided at the clustering step. Second, accuracy in cell-type identification varied more with normalization choice than with clustering algorithm. Third, unsupervised clustering better accounted for segmentation noise during cell-type annotation than hand-gating. Fourth, Z-score normalization was generally effective in mitigating the effects of noise from single-cell multiplexed imaging. Variation in cell-type identification will lead to significant differential spatial results such as cellular neighborhood analysis; consequently, we also make recommendations for accurately assigning cell-type labels to CODEX multiplexed imaging.
Adult-stem-cell-derived organoids model human epithelial tissues ex vivo, which enables the study of host–microbe interactions with great experimental control. This protocol comprises methods to coculture organoids with microbes, particularly focusing on human small intestinal and colon organoids exposed to individual bacterial species. Microinjection into the lumen and periphery of 3D organoids is discussed, as well as exposure of organoids to microbes in a 2D layer. We provide detailed protocols for characterizing the coculture with regard to bacterial and organoid cell viability and growth kinetics. Spatial relationships can be studied by fluorescence live microscopy, as well as scanning electron microscopy. Finally, we discuss considerations for assessing the impact of bacteria on gene expression and mutations through RNA and DNA sequencing. This protocol requires equipment for standard mammalian tissue culture, or bacterial or viral culture, as well as a microinjection device.