2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a possible human carcinogen formed in cooked fish and meat. PhIP is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N–OH-PhIP), a genotoxic metabolite that reacts with DNA leading to the mutation-prone DNA adduct N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP). Here, we studied N–OH-PhIP-induced whole genome mutagenesis in human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse embryo fibroblasts (HUFs) immortalised and subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS). In addition, mutagenicity of N–OH-PhIP in TP53 and the lacZ reporter gene were assessed. TP53 mutant frequency in HUF cultures treated with N–OH-PhIP (2.5 μM for 24 h, n = 90) was 10% while no TP53 mutations were found in untreated controls (DMSO for 24 h, n = 6). All N–OH-PhIP-induced TP53 mutations occurred at G:C base pairs with G > T/C > A transversions accounting for 58% of them. TP53 mutations characteristic of those induced by N–OH-PhIP have been found in human tumours including breast and colorectal, which are cancer types that have been associated with PhIP exposure. LacZ mutant frequency increased 25-fold at 5 μM N–OH–PHIP and up to ~350 dG-C8-PhIP adducts/108 nucleosides were detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation multistage scan mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS3) at this concentration. In addition, a WGS mutational signature defined by G > T/C > A transversions was present in N–OH-PhIP-treated immortalised clones, which showed similarity to COSMIC SBS4, 18 and 29 signatures found in human tumours.
We aimed to assess contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) compared with invasive breast cancer (BC). Women diagnosed with DCIS (N = 28,003) or stage I–III BC (N = 275,836) between 1989 and 2017 were identified from the nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cumulative incidences were estimated, accounting for competing risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) for metachronous invasive CBC. To evaluate effects of adjuvant systemic therapy and screening, separate analyses were performed for stage I BC without adjuvant systemic therapy and by mode of first BC detection. Multivariable models including clinico-pathological and treatment data were created to assess CBC risk prediction performance in DCIS patients. The 10-year cumulative incidence of invasive CBC was 4.8% for DCIS patients (CBC = 1334). Invasive CBC risk was higher in DCIS patients compared with invasive BC overall (HR = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.17), and lower compared with stage I BC without adjuvant systemic therapy (HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.82–0.92). In patients diagnosed ≥2011, the HR for invasive CBC was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.35–1.68) after screen-detected DCIS compared with screen-detected invasive BC, and was 2.14 (95% CI = 1.46–3.13) when not screen-detected. The C-index was 0.52 (95% CI = 0.50–0.54) for invasive CBC prediction in DCIS patients. In conclusion, CBC risks are low overall. DCIS patients had a slightly higher risk of invasive CBC compared with invasive BC, likely explained by the risk-reducing effect of (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy among BC patients. For support of clinical decision making more information is needed to differentiate CBC risks among DCIS patients.
Cancer is driven by genomic mutations in ‘cancer driver’ genes, which have essential roles in tumor development. These mutations may be caused by exposure to mutagens in the environment or by endogenous DNA-replication errors in tissue stem cells. Recent observations of abundant mutations, including cancer driver mutations, in histologically normal human tissues suggest that mutations alone are not sufficient for tumor development, thus prompting the question of how single mutant cells give rise to neoplasia. In a concept supported by decades-old data from mouse tumor models, non-mutagenic tumor-promoting agents have been posited to activate the proliferation of dormant mutated cells, thus generating actively growing lesions, with the promotion stage as the rate-limiting step in tumor formation. Non-mutagenic promoting agents, either endogenous or environmental, may therefore have a more important role in human cancer etiology than previously thought.
Background: Performing a statistical test requires a null hypothesis. In cancer genomics, a key challenge is the fast generation of accurate somatic mutational landscapes that can be used as a realistic null hypothesis for making biological discoveries.
Results: Here we present SigProfilerSimulator, a powerful tool that is capable of simulating the mutational landscapes of thousands of cancer genomes at different resolutions within seconds. Applying SigProfilerSimulator to 2144 whole-genome sequenced cancers reveals: (i) that most doublet base substitutions are not due to two adjacent single base substitutions but likely occur as single genomic events; (ii) that an extended sequencing context of ± 2 bp is required to more completely capture the patterns of substitution mutational signatures in human cancer; (iii) information on false-positive discovery rate of commonly used bioinformatics tools for detecting driver genes.
Conclusions: SigProfilerSimulator’s breadth of features allows one to construct a tailored null hypothesis and use it for evaluating the accuracy of other bioinformatics tools or for downstream statistical analysis for biological discoveries.
Background: Smoking has been associated with worse colorectal cancer patient survival and may potentially suppress the immune response in the tumor microenvironment. We hypothesized that the prognostic association of smoking behavior at colorectal cancer diagnosis might differ by lymphocytic reaction patterns in cancer tissue.
Methods: Using 1474 colon and rectal cancer patients within 2 large prospective cohort studies (Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study), we characterized 4 patterns of histopathologic lymphocytic reaction, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), intratumoral periglandular reaction, peritumoral lymphocytic reaction, and Crohn’s-like lymphoid reaction. Using covariate data of 4420 incident colorectal cancer patients in total, an inverse probability weighted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was conducted to adjust for selection bias due to tissue availability and potential confounders, including tumor differentiation, disease stage, microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype, long interspersed nucleotide element-1 methylation, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations.
Results: The prognostic association of smoking status at diagnosis differed by TIL status. Compared with never smokers, the multivariable-adjusted colorectal cancer–specific mortality hazard ratio for current smokers was 1.50 (95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 2.06) in tumors with negative or low TIL and 0.43 (95% confidence interval = 0.16 to 1.12) in tumors with intermediate or high TIL (2-sided Pinteraction = .009). No statistically significant interactions were observed in the other patterns of lymphocytic reaction.
Conclusions: The association of smoking status at diagnosis with colorectal cancer mortality may be stronger for carcinomas with negative or low TIL, suggesting a potential interplay of smoking and lymphocytic reaction in the colorectal cancer microenvironment.